Friday, May 22, 2020

Behavioral Theories Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

From a cognitive approach, obsessive-compulsive disorder is the result of people blaming their obsessions and compulsions on themselves and therefore having non-rational thoughts of bad things occurring if there compulsions are not acted upon. People with this disorder will attempt to neutralize their thoughts by the compulsions which is usually unsuccessful. In turn, the individual will only feel ease from the negative thoughts temporarily. Treatment from a cognitive approach focuses on giving the patient an understanding of the cognitive process involved in their disorder (Comer 167). Cognitive therapists will help the patient understand why they are feeling the way they are, then they begin to direct their thinking patterns in a more†¦show more content†¦Studies have found that drugs such as clomipramine, fluoxetine, and fluvoxamine help between 50 and 80% of patients. The downfall to this type of treatment is that once the patient comes off of the medication the obsessio ns and compulsions return. This treatment only covers the symptoms of this disorder. Since there are downfalls to each treatment, cognitive, behavioral, and biological therapies are often used in combination. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can last for years or even be life long depending on how successful the treatment is. I chose to write a research paper on OCD because it is a disorder I am very interested in. I think this disorder can have a huge impact on people’s functioning. I could relate to the research I found on this topic, because I experience similar obsessions and compulsions. Although, I have never been diagnosed with this disorder. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether or not the symptoms are affect daily functioning, because in some ways it does and in some it does not. For example, when I use the stove in the morning I will worry about turing it off. I do not have compulsions like explained in the research. I will only have obsessive thought about th e outcomes if it was left on all day. In this case, there is only obsessive thoughts, but I think this might be related to the disorder. Even though I know I turned the stove off, this causes anxiety for me which could be considered to impact myShow MoreRelatedCognitive Behavioral Theory Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder1678 Words   |  7 Pagescognitive behavioral theory that are based on the belief that learning, cognitions, and perceptions play a significant role in the development and maintenance of emotional and behavioral problems. Various CBT models are applied to the diagnostic determinants of Francis’ dysfunctional behavior and the empirically supported methods of cognitive behavioral treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder are used to build a treatment plan to aid in Francis’ recovery. Cognitive Behavioral Case ConceptualizationRead MoreEssay about Anxiety Disorder1441 Words   |  6 Pagespsychological disorders, anxiety disorders are the most predominant in the United States. According to Antony (2011), anxiety disorders affect nearly 28.8 percent of the population. An extreme and unrealistic anxiety is the most common symptom that characterizes all the psychological conditions within the category of anxiety disorders. The category includes specific phobia, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorderRead MoreAnalysis Of The One That Caught My Attention And Interest1589 Words   |  7 Pagesdevelop meaningful relationships. He’s experiencing feelings of self-doubt, low self-esteem, low self-confidence, depression, anxiety, and sleep deprivation. John is showing signs that he may be suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors one feels compelled to perform. OCD causes the brain to get stuck on a particular thought or urge. For example, a personRead MoreTaking a Look at Obsessive Compulsive Disorder659 Words   |  3 Pagesmental disorders in fact â€Å"about one in four adults — suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.† One disorder that is typically seems to be misunderstood and overgeneralized by the general public is obsessive-compulsive disorder. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, otherwise known as OCD is defined as â€Å"a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions, compulsions, or both† (Textbook 574).This disorder is one the most costly, disabling, prevalent of the anxiety disorders (article)Read MoreCase Study: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – the Case of Bess1522 Words   |  7 PagesCase Stu dy: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – The Case of Bess Your Name PSY/410 Date Professor Obsessive Compulsive Disorders: The Case of Bess Obsessive compulsive disorder commonly (OCD) can be defined as an anxiety disorder differentiated by acts of compulsiveness or continual thoughts of obsession. Persistent thoughts, images, and desires are characteristics of obsessions. These thoughts, images, and desires are not typically willed into one’s mind as they are often senseless, illogicalRead More The Diagnosis and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder1281 Words   |  6 PagesTreatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder There are many factors to consider in the evaluation and treatment of Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This paper will discuss the strategies that have proven most effective in treating the disorder, including: drug therapy, cognitive therapy, and family-based therapy. It will focus on the benefits of flexibility, emphasizing combination therapy, especially with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has becomeRead MoreWhat Is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder? Essay1238 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder? Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a mental health disorder in which a person gets entangled in a chain reaction of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety. (â€Å"Obsessive-compulsive disorder,† 2013) Compulsions are irresistible urges to behave in a certain way, especially against one s conscious wishes to combat the obsessions. Common obsessions are contamination, losing control, harm, and perfectionismRead MoreObsessive Compulsive Disorder ( Ocd ) Essay1501 Words   |  7 Pages Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Who It Affects, Why It Affects Them, and What They Can Do to Be Cured Cheyenne Poynter Pensacola State College Abstract This paper explores Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in depth. OCD will be defined extensively as well as how it begins, who it affects, the studies being done for it, and current cures for the unfortunate mental disorder. Biological, psychological, and environmental factors as well as genetic influences play a relatively large roleRead MoreThe Psychology Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Essay1146 Words   |  5 PagesThe Psychology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, also known as OCD, is a disorder that affects about two to three percent of the population (UOCD). Knowing what OCD is and who it affects is just step one in understanding the psychology of this disorder. The psychological symptoms of OCD can be quite varied which can make it difficult to diagnose. Understanding the therapy techniques and how people with OCD live their daily lives is one of the most vital part in theRead MoreObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Ocd) Is Known As The Incessant1048 Words   |  5 PagesObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as the incessant of distressing thoughts or images which is known to be the (obsessions) or overt or convert the behaviors (or the mental rituals) that are aimed to help reduce anxiety (compulsions). This disorder has an effect on 1-2% of children and adults, that ranges up to 80% for adults that report of having symptoms onset prior to the young age of 18 years. It’s is known that without the appropriate type of intervention, the symptoms of OCD have

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Top Plato Symposium Essay Topics Guide!

Top Plato Symposium Essay Topics Guide! Facts, Fiction and Plato Symposium Essay Topics An idea that you think is new may have been thought by somebody else long time back. In our modern world the concept of love for a god is surely unsound. Similarly Love isn't good because love has to be of good. Consequently, love of an individual's body is replaced by means of a love of that individual's wisdom, which is replaced by the greatest love, the love of wisdom generally. Most students feel the essay topics have to be extravagant or unusual. Many students don't know how to compose a superior classification essay since they choose wrong topics to work on. Essays could be literary or non-literary. Reading example essays works exactly the same way! Choice of the essay topic is important portion of your efforts to compose a great essay. Ideas, Formulas and Shortcuts for Plato Symposium Essay Topics There are various facets of Greek art that may be accredited to Plato for creating. Platos thought is largely recorded in the shape of dialogues that feature Socrates as the protagonist. Though an essay might be written for different purposes a writer should be creative, analytical and needs to be in a position to organize his thoughts in a very clear and crisp method. There are also a number of essays on Plato you could refer so as to observe how others have presented their arguments. The Lost Secret of Plato Symposium Essay Topics There are lots of facets which one should bear in mind when revising a classification essay. Thus, you've got to consider from the view of an artist to come up with a fantastic body paragraph of A level e ssay. Whatever the kind of essay is, they need to proofread it again and again in order to ensure there are not any traces of mistakes left. As there's an established structure for five paragraph essays one is to start with introduction. Get the Scoop on Plato Symposium Essay Topics Before You're Too Late Innovate your own ideas to create the essay more delight full and potent. If you're not sure which to use, you will hear which one is accurate. An appreciation of the increase of private freedom as it has developed in the Western Tradition. The Plato Symposium Essay Topics Game In case it sounds goofy, then odds are good the suitable choice is Its. Log into the net, there are a number of websites that supply the sample college essay. Therefore, most students wind up being frustrated since they aren't able to write and submit their customized essay paper in time. Attempt to concentrate on a single point, instead of butterfly several topics at the same time. The Chronicle s of Plato Symposium Essay Topics Essay writing is about relating to the theme. Such essays are occasionally written in a series so they cover the full scope of the theme. The majority of the works are depicting a perfect Greek person performing a noble act not simply a typical act. The Plato Symposium Essay Topics Game One of the absolute most efficient approaches to develop a topic and title is to note down any ideas you are thinking about. If you pick a difficult essay topic for a specific reason, or when you have zero choice and thegiven topic doesn't interest you much, do take the aid of Professional Advisers. Last word of advice is to seek advice from your teacher before the last decision about this issue selection for argumentative essays. Last words of advice are to seek advice from your teacher in case you have any confusion. Top Plato Symposium Essay Topics Secrets The essay writing must be completed in a well-planned and structured method. An individual must rea lize that writing an essay isn't a very simple job and there's substantial effort that's required to develop oneself into a good essay writer. The introduction needs to be convincing and bring out the thesis that you will present in the essay. You ought to make sure your essay states finally what you have been able to prove. You will have the ability to compose your own essays effectively whenever you want to. An argumentative essay on the opposite hand should be supported by facts. As an example, Write an excellent informative essay with these easy essay hacks. The Tried and True Method for Plato Symposium Essay Topics in Step by Step Detail One other important process whilst writing the college paper is to get a framework before writing your very first draft. Last words of advice are to make sure you can conduct a research work on this issue you've selected because if you're going for the above topics then it'll be much difficult that you research on it. In order that will help you narrow down an ideal topic and title for your environmental essay, we've discussed some techniques you may employ. The student may give the specifics of the topics to the firm. If it comes to write engineering essay for those students that are studying in electrical engineering school becomes confused since they are engineers and not the writers. You may receive a higher grade than your peers if you opt to quote from articles. Actually, there isn't any school. Some schools have a lot of specific topics from which you're expected to choose and write about. Whatever They Told You About Plato Symposium Essay Topics Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why To accomplish this, the writers would have to place down the facts of their research in the argumentative essay, at the very same time they will need to cite the facts to demonstrate the credential of the arguments. In this time of unification, Plato started to travel. Persuasive or argumentative essays are intended to convince the audience of ones viewpoint about a specific topic. Superheroes are more prone to fight each other than they are supposed to fight villains. As a writer it's a very good idea to understand what critics have written about the topic.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Areas of Specialization in Psychology Free Essays

Areas of Specialization Number |Subjects of study in psychology |Areas of specialization in |Definition and key points of this |Rationale (reason why you matched |Possible research method of | | | |psychology (match with below |specialization (be sure to use |this subject of study with this |study (experimental, | | | |options) |professional sources) |specialization in psychology) |correlational, observational, | | | | | | |case study, interview) and why | | | | | | |this one may fit the best | |1 |Studying the causes of aggression in |Social |Study of how people behave in |Social Psychology would help |I would say experimental, | | |reaction to others in their environment. | |social environments, study how |explain why someone would become |because it is a preferred way to| | | | |friendships develop, what causes |aggressive in their environment. |study behavior. We will write a custom essay sample on Areas of Specialization in Psychology or any similar topic only for you Order Now | | | | |aggression and how prejudices are | | | | | | |formed. Argosy University, 2013) | | | |2 |Studying the period when a newborn child |Developmental |Study of human development. |When a child recognizes their |Naturalistic method because | | |recognizes his or her parent. | |Study factors that shape human |parent would be considered a |really the only way to see when | | | | |behavior from birth to |developmental behavior. |a newborn recognizes their | | | | |death. (Argosy University, 2013) | |parent is to observe them. |3 |Sharing some research about the best |Industrial and organizational |Study of factors that affect |Work place stress would affect |Questionnaire because it can | | |strategies to manage work place stress. | |people in organizations. Identify |performance at the work place, |handle and works well for any | | | | |factors that affect performance. |which would fall under this |large group of people. | | | | |Development of employee skills. |category. | | | | |Job analysis. (Argosy University, | | | | | | |2013) | | | |4 |Determining which chemical or |Neuropsychology |Attempt to study the human brain |Seeing what neurotransmitter |Experimental will help show | | |neurotransmitter might be activated when | |and its impact on human behavior. coffee would affect would have to |cause and effect between | | |people use coffee as a memory or | |Would try to figure out what |do with studying the brain and the|variables | | |performance â€Å"enhancer†. | |chemicals or neurotransmitters |effects of certain chemicals on | | | | | |were responsible for our emotions |chemicals or neurotransmitters | | | | | |or something like anxiety. (Argosy | | | | | |University, 2013) | | | |5 |Reviewing the thought process of someone |Cognitive |Study and work with how each |Seeing how someone has come to |Experimental because it can show| | |who has difficulties remembering things | |individual stores, transforms, |have difficulties long-ter m would |the cause and effect which may | | |long-term. | |uses and communicates information. |fall under the category of |be beneficial. | | | | |Works with how we remember things |communicating or storing | | | | | |, and how we decide(Argosy |information. | | | | |University, 2013) | | | |6 |Methods to gain possible diagnoses in |Clinical |Work on diagnosis, understanding, |In order to understand and help |Case study because one could | | |efforts to understand emotional problems. | |and treatment of severe emotional |diagnose emotional problems one |gather a lot of information on a| | | | |problems, mental problems, and |would need to study emotional |case to case basis that would | | | | |behavioral problems but have no |problems. aid in understanding emotional | | | | |medical degree. Don’t rely on | |problems based on people’s | | | | |medicine. | |individual experiences | Use these as the possible specializations to use in the above chart: Clinical psych ology or Clinical Psychologists Health psychology Biological psychology or Neuropsychologists Developmental psychology Social and personality Cognitive psychology How to cite Areas of Specialization in Psychology, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Napoleon Bonaparte Essays (692 words) - French Emperors,

Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte, who is also known as the "little Corsican", was born on August 15,1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. His family had moved there from Italy in the 16th century. His original name was Napoleone. He had 7 brothers and sisters. His original nationality was Corsican-Italian. He also despised the French. He thought they were oppressors of his native land. His father was a lawyer, and was also anti-French. One reason Napoleon may have been such a great leader and revolutionary because was he was raised in a family of radicals. When Napoleon was nine, his father sent him to Brienne, a French military government school in Paris. While there he was constantly teased by the French students. Because of this Napoleon started having dreams of personal glory and triumph. From 1784 to 1785 Napoleon attended the Ecole Militaire in Paris. It was there that he received his military training. He studied to be an artillery man and an officer. He finished his training and he joined the French army when he was just 16 years old. His father died after that and he had to provide for his entire family. Napoleon was stationed in Paris in 1792. After the French monarchy was overthrown in August of that year, Napoleon started to make a name for himself and become a well known military leader. In 1792 Napoleon was promoted to captain. In 1793 he was chosen to direct the artillery against the siege in Toulon. Soon after that Toulon fell and Napoleon was promoted to brigadier general. Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy. He defeated many Austrian Generals. Soon after this Austria and France made peace. Afterwards Napoleon was relieved of his command. He had been suspected of treason. In 1795 he broke up a revolt and saved the French government. He had earned back respect and he was once again give command of the French Army in Italy. He came up with a plan that worked very well. He would cut the enemy's army in to two parts, then attack one side of them before the other side could help them. This worked very well against the Sardinian troops, he defeated them 5 times in 11 days. After this Napoleon was almost impossible to stop. This was when he began conquering most of Europe. The first country he defeated was Austria. He collected lots of money and sent it back to Paris, this helped the weak economy of France. After he came close to Vienna, the Austrians surrendered, and made a treaty with France. This gave France the Netherlands, and it made the Rhine River the eastern border of France. He made an unsuccessful attempt to invade Egypt. And in 1799 he returned to France to find the Directory (the French Government) was a mess. The overthrew the Directory, and created a new government, in which there were three consuls, and he was the most important one. At this time, everyone in France loved napoleon, and his power increased. In 1802 France signed a peace treaty with England and Germany, and was now not at war with anyone. He re-established the University of France, reformed the education system, and he founded the Bank of France. He also made the Napolionic Code: The first clear, compact statement of the French law. The Napolionic Code has served as a base for legal systems around the world. He changed the government again and made himself ruler of the French Empire. He divorced his wife Josephine in 1809 and married Marie Louise, the daughter of the Emperor of Austria. He soon had a son by his second wife, and made him king of Rome. He now was the ruler of a great empire, and he had 42 million people under his control. After he tried to invade Russia, his empire began to crumble. And on April 6, 1814 he was forced from the throne. He was exiled to the island of Elba. About a year later, he gathered about 1,000 soldiers and went to Paris and regained power. He ruled for a short time, and then he surrendered to the English. He was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic, where he stayed until he died on May 5, 1821. He supposedly died of cancer, but there are rumors that he was poisoned.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Microsoft Word Tips How to Use Find and Replace

Microsoft Word Tips How to Use Find and Replace Microsoft Word Tips: How to Use Find and Replace When working on a large document, you may need to quickly find certain words and phrases. Good news, then! Microsoft Word’s search functions are a great tool to use while editing. But how do they work exactly? Let us walk you through the Find and Replace tools in Microsoft Word. Searching a Document How to access the search options in Microsoft Word depends on the version you are using: In Word for Windows, go to Home Editing on the ribbon and click Find for the basic search or Replace to open the Find and Replace window The basic search box is displayed as a default in Word for Mac, but you can also click the magnifying glass and select Replace†¦ to open the advanced Replace With†¦ search window These options can also be accessed via the shortcuts Ctrl + F (basic search) or Ctrl + H (find and replace). Search options in Word for Windows. The Navigation Pane The navigation pane is a panel on the left of the screen in Microsoft Word to help you navigate your document. It can be opened by accessing the basic search options (see above) or by going to View Show on the main ribbon and checking the box that says Navigation Pane. Once you have opened it, you will have three options available: Headings – A list of text formatted with a Heading style in the document Pages – A thumbnail preview of each page in the document Results – A list of text that matches the term(s) used in a search Navigation pane tabs. It is this last tab that interests us most here. This is where you’ll see the full list of results when you search for a term or phrase in Microsoft Word, making it easy to find issues quickly. Using Find and Replace Effectively The Replace function in Microsoft Word lets you search for terms and replace them with other text. This can be especially useful if you decide to change a specific word throughout a long document. To use this tool, first open the Find and Replace window (see above). Next, you need to: Enter the term you want to search for in the Find what field Enter the new term you want to replace it with in the Replace with field Click Find Next to search for the term and Replace to replace it The Find and Replace window. You can also click Replace All to replace all instances of a term at once. However, this can introduce errors if you are not careful, so it is usually better to take each replacement one at a time. One great use of the Find and Replace tool is to remove double spaces from a document. All this requires is searching for a double space and using a single space in the Replace with field. Advanced Searches Feeling confident now? Well, you might be ready for Microsoft Word’s advanced search options. These can be accessed by clicking the More button in the Find and Replace window. Advanced search options. Here, you will find options to search for specific capitalization of terms, formatting, and even special characters. You may not need to use these options often, but they can be very useful for making sure that formatting and capitalization are consistent throughout a document.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Iran History and Facts

Iran History and Facts The Islamic Republic of Iran, formerly known to outsiders as Persia, is one of the centers of ancient human civilization.  The name Iran comes from the word Aryanam, meaning Land of the Aryans. Sited on the hinge between the Mediterranean world, Central Asia, and the Middle East, Iran has taken several turns as a superpower empire and been overrun in turn by any number of invaders. Today, the Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the more formidable powers in the Middle East region- a land where lyrical  Persian poetry vies with strict interpretations of Islam for the soul of a people. Capital and Major Cities Capital: Tehran, population 7,705,000 Major Cities: Mashhad, population 2,410,000 Esfahan, 1,584,000 Tabriz, population 1,379,000 Karaj, population 1,377,000 Shiraz, population 1,205,000 Qom, population 952,000 Irans Government Since the Revolution of 1979, Iran has been ruled by a complex governmental structure. At the top is the Supreme Leader, selected by the Assembly of Experts, who is Commander-in-Chief of the military and oversees the civilian government. Next is the elected President of Iran, who serves for a maximum of two 4-year terms. Candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council. Iran has a unicameral legislature called the Majlis, which has 290 members. Laws are written in accordance with law, as interpreted by the Guardian Council. The Supreme Leader appoints the Head of Judiciary, who appoints judges and prosecutors. Population of Iran Iran is home to approximately 72 million people of dozens of different ethnic backgrounds. Important ethnic groups include the Persians (51%), Azeris (24%), Mazandarani and Gilaki (8%), Kurds (7%), Iraqi Arabs (3%), and Lurs, Balochis, and Turkmens (2% each). Smaller populations of Armenians, Persian Jews, Assyrians, Circassians, Georgians, Mandaeans, Hazaras, Kazakhs, and Romany also live in various enclaves within Iran. With an increased educational opportunity for women, Irans birth rate has declined markedly in recent years after booming in the late 20th century. Iran also hosts over 1 million Iraqi and Afghan refugees. Languages Not surprisingly in such an ethnically diverse nation, Iranians speak dozens of different languages and dialects. The official language is Persian (Farsi), which is part of the Indo-European language family. Along with the closely related Luri, Gilaki and Mazandarani,  Farsi is the native tongue of 58% of Iranians. Azeri and other Turkic languages account for 26%; Kurdish, 9%; and languages like Balochi and Arabic make up about 1% each. Some Iranian languages are critically endangered, such as Senaya, of the Aramaic family, with only about 500 speakers. Senaya is spoken by Assyrians from the western Kurdish region of Iran. Religion in Iran Approximately 89% of Iranians are Shia Muslim, while 9% more are Sunni. The remaining 2% are Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian and Bahai. Since 1501, the Shia Twelver sect has dominated in Iran. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 placed Shia clergy in positions of political power; the Supreme Leader of Iran is a Shia ayatollah, or Islamic scholar and judge. Irans constitution recognizes Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism (Persias main pre-Islamic faith) as protected belief systems. The messianic Bahai faith, on the other hand, has been persecuted since its founder, the Bab, was executed in Tabriz in 1850. Geography At the pivot point between the Middle East and Central Asia, Iran borders on the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, and the Caspian Sea.  It shares land borders with Iraq and Turkey to the west; Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan to the north; and Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east. Slightly larger than the US state of Alaska, Iran covers 1.6 million square kilometers (636,295 square miles).  Iran is a mountainous land, with two large salt deserts (Dasht-e Lut and Dasht-e Kavir) in the east-central section. The highest point in Iran is Mt. Damavand, at 5,610 meters (18,400 feet). The lowest point is sea level. Climate of Iran Iran experiences four seasons each year. Spring and fall are mild, while winters bring heavy snowfall to the mountains. In the summer, temperatures routinely top 38 °C (100 °F). Precipitation is scarce across Iran, with the national yearly average at about 25 centimeters (10 inches). However, the high mountain peaks and valleys get at least twice that amount  and offer opportunities for downhill skiing in the winter. Economy of Iran Irans majority centrally-planned economy depends upon oil and gas exports for between 50 and 70% of its revenue. The per capita GDP is a robust $12,800 US, but 18% of Iranians live below the poverty line and 20% are unemployed. About 80% of Irans export income comes from fossil fuels. The country also exports small amounts of fruit, vehicles, and carpets. The currency of Iran is the rial. As of June 2009, $1 US 9,928 rials. History of Iran The earliest archaeological findings from Persia date to the Paleolithic era, 100,000 years ago. By 5000 BCE, Persia hosted sophisticated agriculture and early cities. Powerful dynasties have ruled Persia, beginning with the Achaemenid (559-330 BCE), which was founded by Cyrus the Great. Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 300 BCE, founding the Hellenistic era (300-250 BCE). This was followed by the indigenous Parthian Dynasty (250 BCE - 226 CE) and the Sassanian Dynasty (226 - 651 CE). In 637, Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula invaded Iran, conquering the whole region over the next 35 years. Zoroastrianism faded away as more and more Iranians converted to Islam. During the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered Iran bit by bit, establishing a Sunni empire. The Seljuks sponsored great Persian artists, scientists, and poets, including Omar Khayyam. In 1219, Genghis Khan and the Mongols invaded Persia, wreaking havoc across the country and slaughtering entire cities. Mongol rule ended in 1335, followed by a period of chaos. In 1381, a new conqueror appeared: Timur the Lame or Tamerlane. He too razed entire cities; after just 70 years, his successors were driven from Persia by the Turkmen. In 1501, the Safavid dynasty brought Shia Islam to Persia. The ethnically Azeri/Kurdish Safavids ruled until 1736, often clashing with the powerful Ottoman Turkish Empire to the west. The Safavids were in and out of power throughout the 18th century, with the revolt of former slave Nadir Shah and the establishment of the Zand dynasty. Persian politics normalized again with the founding of the Qajar Dynasty (1795-1925) and Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979). In 1921, the Iranian army officer Reza Khan seized control of the government. Four years later, he ousted the last Qajar ruler and named himself Shah. This was the origin of the Pahlavis, Irans final dynasty. Reza Shah tried to rapidly modernize Iran but was forced out of office by the western powers after 15 years because of his ties to the Nazi regime in Germany. His son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, took the throne in 1941. The new shah ruled until 1979  when he was overthrown in the Iranian Revolution  by a coalition opposed to his brutal and autocratic rule. Soon, the Shia clergy took control of the country, under the leadership of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Khomeini declared Iran a theocracy, with himself as the Supreme Leader. He ruled the country until his death in 1989; he was succeeded by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Why Do Wars Happen Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Why Do Wars Happen - Essay Example Adopting the framework of Henry Nau, the basic insights offered to understand why wars and peace can happen are the realist, liberalist, and identity perspectives (Humphreys, 180). The class lectures of our course heavily used the book of Henry Nau and, thus, this discussion heavily used the lecture materials. The realist perspective holds that states must protect themselves and that the best protection will be found wherein states balance each other, meaning that no state is in a position to bully the other states because all states have the capability to subvert a bully either alone or with allies (Lecture 3, Slide 2). However, holding the other states in check so that no one would be in a position to bully or conquer another, require that states must arm themselves (Lecture 3, Slide 3). In addition, states will be unable to tap allies if they themselves are not armed (Lecture 3, Slide 3). For realists, transitional peace is possible if countries disarm. Yet, if a country disarms a nd others do not, the country that disarmed will not be in a position to defend herself. The country will be vulnerable to attacks and will be vulnerable to being conquered by the country that did not disarm. If on the other hand, all countries arm themselves to the teeth, a situation is created wherein a war scenario or an armed standoff can emerge (Lecture 3, Slide 6). This means there is a potential for war with an armed standoff (Lecture 3, Slide 6). There is a dilemma: if a country does not arm, she risks being bullied or conquered. If a country arms, she will risk a war or an armed standoff (Lecture 3, Slide 6). For a realist, countries will usually consider subjugation unacceptable. On the other hand, a country can consider peace to be too fragile and vulnerable to become a situation in which one country could re-arm to conquer the other. Thus, for realists, the â€Å"realistic† or appropriate situation to target is a situation of stand-off or parity of power (Lecture 3, Slide 6). On the same dilemma and situation confronted by realists, liberalists or liberalism holds that peace remains possible if institutions are created to make negotiations work better (Lecture 4, Slide 2). Liberalism argues that peace can be enforced if countries or states unite to punish states that fail to disarm (Lecture 4, Slide 2). Liberalists hold that another route towards peace is available if states who are disarming implement the disarmament by stages wherein participants to the disarmament observe each other (Lecture 4, Slide 3). Each country can implement the disarmament proportionate to the goodwill or initiative of each other (Lecture 4, Slide 3). A country can also reduce her arms in a manner calculated to inspire reciprocation from other countries to reduce their arms. In doing so, all countries in a disarmament program can reduce arms until the disarmament becomes full and complete (Lecture 4, Slide 4). A country can initiate goodwill reducing arms in the ex pectation that other countries will reciprocate the goodwill by implementing a proportionate disarmament. In the liberalist perspective or liberalism, institutions play an important role in the disarmament process because they can serve as third parties that can help countries involved in the disarmament (Lecture 4, Slide 4). The forerunner of the United Nations, for example, the League of Nations provided a mechanism whereby countries involved in international disputes are able to submit their dispute to the league for arbitration (Lecture 4, Slide 4). If the league finds or has come to believe or has deemed that a country is guilty of aggression, the league can enforce peace by imposing economic blockade or sanctions against the assumed aggressor (Lecture 4, Slide